Spanish words adopted into English

“The first English colonists in North America soon encountered their Spanish rivals in well-established settlements.”

Spanish-Words-in-EnglishIn The Story of English (1986), a book sitting literally right in front of me on the bookshelf in the home office, the authors noted that my native tongue borrowed “bellicose Spanish words (reflecting contemporary conflicts) like desperado and embargo.”

Later, it’s more generous: “The first English colonists in North America soon encountered their Spanish rivals in well-established settlements from Florida to Sante Fe, and it was from here that English acquired such everyday words as barbecue, chocolate and tomato

“To this day, American English has borrowed more words from Spanish – like enchilada, marijuana, plaza, stampede and tornado – than from any other language, and the list is growing year by year.

“The [19th-Century cowboys’] contact with the horse-handlers brought a number of new words in American English: rodeo, stampede, bronco, chaps, lasso, mustang, lariat, pinto, poncho, ranch.”

I thought about this because I happened across this article in April 2019: 111 English Words That Are Actually Spanish. Unsurprisingly, several state names are included, such as California; Colorado – “red-colored”; Florida – “flowery”; Montana – mountain; Nevada – snowy; New Mexico – Nuevo México; Texas – the Spanish adopted the word tejas from the language of the indigenous Cado people, meaning “friends” or “allies”; Utah – from the name of the indigenous Ute people, via Spanish yuta; and probably Arizona.

I wouldn’t have guessed 10-gallon hat – from tan galán (so gallant), or possibly galón (braid). Or alligator – el lagarto (the lizard) were on the list.

The article also correctly notes: “English isn’t the only language with a penchant for absorbing words from other languages. Many words that English has acquired from Spanish originally came from other languages, mostly those of native American populations that were subjugated by the Spanish colonial empire.’ Popular “examples that entered English vernacular through the Nahuatl language in Mexico” are noted, including the aforementioned tomato.

See also an article from thoughtco: When Spanish Words Become Our Own; Adopted and Borrowed Words Enrich English.

For ABC Wednesday

March rambling: complicated meanings

Luna Lee on the gayageum

At Current Rates Of Use World Could Run Out Of Thoughts And Prayers By As Early As 2019

We Are all Nixonians Now

There Are No Good Guys With Guns

What To Do When Racists Try To Hijack Your Religion

‘National Geographic’ Reckons With Its Past: ‘For Decades, Our Coverage Was Racist’

‘Stay Strong,’ And Other Useless Drivel We Tell The Grieving

The Encyclopedia of the Missing

When the only way to go free is to plead guilty

3 Far-Flung Cities Offer Clues to Unsnarling Manhattan’s Streets

OVERLOOKED: 15 obits of notable women

Alaska as a Red-to-Blue(ish) Model

‘The story of a weird world I was warned never to tell’

Union College says it found strand of George Washington’s hair

Stop Using the Label ‘Struggling Reader,’ Author Jacqueline Woodson Advises

Why Do We Need to Sleep?

The Unexpected Benefit of Train Travel

Rare Photo of Harriet Tubman Preserved

Digging into my family’s claims of Cherokee ancestry

in praise of soft targets

Stephen Hawking dies at 76 on Einstein’s birthday and Pi day; despite ALS, his mind roamed the cosmos

RIP, David Ogden Stiers

Dalai Lama, Chicago in May 2008:
“The universe is in a constant state of becoming—an ongoing miraculous creation. Every day we awaken to that miracle with gratitude, respect, and compassion for all who share the gift of being.”

Memories of ‘M*A*S*H’: Inside Stories of the Most Famous Episodes (and Castings)

The Loophole

Smartphones Are Getting Dumber…on Purpose

A Finnish comedian explains the complicated meanings of an English word

Legendary toy demonstrated to have squirrel-repelling properties

Faking It: The Obviously Dubbed Telephone Ring

Aldi’s supermarkets history

A PhD In Batman

A niece at Carnegie Hall

Now I Know: The Florida City Fueled by Soda and Baseball’s Unluckiest Fan and How Bazooka Joe Lost a Baseball Glove

Not me: Couple begins rekindling an eighth-grade romance

MUSIC

Camille Saint-Saens’s Septet for piano, trumpet, and strings, Opus 65!

Hamilton Polka

The Music of Paolo Tosti – Carla Fisk and Michael Clement

Will Jesus Wash The Bloodstains From Your Hands – Hazel Dickens

Everlasting Arms – Luke Winslow-King, Vasti Jackson, Dr. John, and Roots Gospel Voices of Mississippi

Norma Tanega (and Dusty Springfield)

There Is A Time – The Darlings (Andy Griffith Show)

Tush – Luna Lee on the gayageum

Cover of Take on Me (a-ha)

Sound of Silence – Todd Hoffman

Taxman – Joe Bonamassa, Live at The Cavern Club

Inside the Life of Brenda Lee, the Pop Heroine Next Door

Classes, other resources for English learners in the Capital District

The English as a New Language (ENL) Home Study program provides an excellent opportunity for non-native English speakers to gain a better understanding of our language and culture.

Here’s a list of resources compiled by Jeanne Finley in November and December 2017 and shared, not just with her permission, but with her encouragement.

The terminology used here: ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages); ESL (English as a Second Language). Very recently, the term ENL, for English as a New Language, has been used, primarily because some English language learners (ELLs) are picking up a third or fourth language.

Please comment regarding updates, changes or corrections.

*Some classes may require registration in advance. Call for details.

Classes: Albany area/Albany County

– Albany: Adults
Albany Public Library, Washington Avenue branch, 161 Washington Avenue
Sponsored by Literacy NY Greater Capital Region, (518) 452-3381, www.literacynycap.org
Christina Darling, Program Coordinator, (518) 631-2926.
ESOL, beginning, intermediate. Free.

– Albany: Adults
Albany Public Library, Pine Hills branch, 517 Western Avenue
Sponsored by Literacy NY Greater Capital Region, (518) 452-3381,
www.literacynycap.org and Capital Region BOCES, (518) 862-4707, http://www.capregboces.org/
ESOL, intermediate, multi-level. Monday and Wednesday, 9 a.m.–12 noon. Must register for orientation session. Free.

– Albany: Adults
Albany Public Library, Delaware Avenue branch, 331 Delaware Avenue
Sponsored by Literacy NY Greater Capital Region, (518) 452-3381,
(518) 463-0254 (ESL), www.literacynycap.org
ESOL, beginning, intermediate. Tuesday and Thursday, mornings and afternoons. Call to register. Free.

– Albany: Adults
Capital Region BOCES Career & Technical School, Building A, 1015 Watervliet-Shaker Road
Sponsored by Capital Region BOCES, (518) 862-4707, http://www.capregboces.org/
ESOL, multi-level. Monday and Wednesday, 4:30 p.m.–7:30 p.m. Must register for orientation session. Free.

– Albany: Adults
Albany Medical Center, 22 New Scotland Avenue
Sponsored by Capital Region BOCES, (518) 862-4707, http://www.capregboces.org/
ESOL, multi-level. Tuesday through Thursday, 1 p.m.–4 p.m. Must register for orientation session. Free.

– Albany: Adults
Holy Spirit Lutheran Church, 57 Hurlbut Street
Sponsored by Capital Region BOCES, (518) 862-4707, http://www.capregboces.org/
ESOL, multi-level. Monday through Thursday, 9 a.m.–1 p.m. Must register for orientation session. Free.

– Albany: Adults
St. Paul’s Lutheran Church, 475 State Street
Sponsored by Capital Region BOCES, (518) 862-4707, http://www.capregboces.org/
ESOL, multi-level. Mondays and Wednesdays, 5 p.m.–8 p.m. Must register for orientation session. Free.

– Albany: Adults
Albany Literacy Zone, Trinity Alliance, Capital South Campus Center, 20 Warren Street
(518) 449-5155, http://www.trinityalliancealbany.org/literacy-zone/
Sponsored by Capital Region BOCES, (518) 862-4707, http://www.capregboces.org/
Shannon Cornwall, (518) 694-4533 or Maria Huntington, (518) 694-4567.
ESL classes ongoing. Tuesdays through Thursdays, 9 a.m.–12 noon. Must register for orientation session. Free.

– Albany: Adults
Trinity Alliance, 15 Trinity Place
Sponsored by Capital Region BOCES, (518) 862-4707, http://www.capregboces.org/
ESL classes ongoing. Mondays through Wednesdays, 9 a.m.–12 p.m. Must register for orientation session. Free.

– Albany: Adults and children ages 5-13
RISSE (Refugee and Immigrant Support Services of Emmaus), 240 West Lawrence Street
(518) 621-1041, (518) 567-4354, (518) 505-1737
www.risse-albany.org
Adults: ESL Group Instruction, September–June: Monday–Friday, 12 p.m.– 6 p.m.
July & August: Monday–Friday, 10 a.m.–4 p.m.
Levels 1, 2, and 3. Must register for orientation session. Free.
Children ages 5-13: New York State Licensed ESL After-School program, September–June: 2:30 p.m.–6 p.m.
Call for appointment.
Children ages 5-13: New York State Licensed ESL Summer School Program, July & August, 8:30 a.m.–5:30 p.m.
Call for appointment.

– Albany: Adults
USCRI (United States Committee for Refugees and Immigrants), 991 Broadway, Suite 223
Martha Butler, Program Coordinator, Office for New Americans, (518) 459-1790 (extension 8008), www.RefugeesAlbany.org
Beginner classes. Next enrollment period December 18, 2017 – January 10, 2018, for classes starting week of January 8. Classes 3-4 days per week, 4 p.m. –7 p.m.
Pre-test required; call for appointment. Free.

– Albany: Children pre-Kindergarten–Grade 5 in Albany City School District
Delaware Community School, 43 Bertha Street
(518) 475-6750,
http://www.albanyschools.org/Academics/Dual-Language/DualLang.html
Dual Language Program, Spanish-English only. Child must be registered in district.

– Albany: Children grades 6–12, refugees and immigrants in Albany City School District
Albany International Center, North Albany Academy, 570 North Pearl Street
(518) 475-6900,
http://www.albanyschools.org/Academics/ENL-Refugee/AIC/AIC.html
Rachel Stead, Principal, rstead@albany.k12.ny.us
Lily Htoo, Home School Coordinator, lhtoo@albany.k12.ny.us
Serves about 175 refugee and immigrant students from throughout the City School District of Albany who are in the early stages of learning English and will benefit from targeted instruction and support in all subjects. Students spend an average of two years in the program before returning to their middle school or Albany High School. Child must be registered in district.

– Albany: Adults and children
Empire State English, 24 Aviation Road, Suite 100
(518) 729-5407, http://esenglish.org
English language programs for adults: Kim Andersen, President, Eileen Lee, Academic Director
English language programs for children: Elizabeth Suparmanto, Registrar
ESL and part-time classes. COST: see website
Sister program, Capital Region Language Center, offers English language instruction for children, http://esenglish.org/other-programs/
Troy location coming January 2018

– Albany: Adults
Educational Opportunity Center (EOC) of Hudson Valley Community College, 30 North Russell Road, 2nd Floor, Albany
(518) 273-1900, http://www.hvcc.edu/eoc/programs.html#ESL
ESL, three levels. The ESL programs allow students with limited English proficiency the opportunity to master speaking, listening, reading and writing skills in English.
Apply online: http://www.hvcc.edu/eoc/
Must complete assessment. Free to qualified applicants.
ALSO LOCATED IN TROY at 431 River Street.

– Albany: Adults
Masjid As-Salam, 276 Central Avenue
(518) 463-6275, http://www.masjidassalam.org/Pages/default.aspx
English class, Saturday, 10 a.m.–12 noon
Classes held at 280 Central Avenue. Call first. Free.

– Guilderland: Adults
Guilderland Public Library, 2228 Western Avenue
Sponsored by Literacy NY Greater Capital Region, (518) 452-3381, www.literacynycap.org
ESOL, advanced. Free.

– Latham: Adults
Al-Hidaya Center, 322 Troy Schenectady Road
(518) 608-1255, http://al-hidaya.org
English class, Monday–Friday, 5:30 p.m.–7:30 p.m. Call first. Free.

– Watervliet: Adults
Watervliet Library, 1501 Broadway, #1
Sponsored by Capital Region BOCES, (518) 862-4707, http://www.capregboces.org/
ESOL, multi-level. Tuesday and Thursday, 12 noon–3 p.m. Must register for orientation session. Free.
Continue reading “Classes, other resources for English learners in the Capital District”

Acyrologia

I DO curl up in the feeble position.

This is one of those Facebook items, passed along by Grandiloquent Word of the Day, that I loved so much, thought I’d give it its own post. (AND I’m in a river in Egypt.)

How many errors to YOU see?

grammar

One of those words Americans apparently misuse is walla. “The correct word they are looking for is ‘voila’, which loosely translates as ‘here it is’, ‘there you go’, or similar meanings.”
***

I had seen the word “pwned”, assumed it meant “owned,” but never bothered to look up the derivation until Arthur had been pwned. Here’s the Urban Dictionary, again.
***
20 Jokes So Terrible They’re Actually Funny; well, some of them are…

Someone tell me why there is, again, a run of graphics suggesting that Bob Denver, who died in September 2005, died recently. there was a run of these reports in 2012, as I recall, and a couple times since then.

It’s like what SNL used to say about Franco: Bob Denver is STILL dead.

Right on! for the genericized noun

They are not capitalizing Coke because, in part of the country, coke could be a 7-Up or “diet dr. pepper.”

wordbrandsThis newspaper writer I’ve met notes: “MS Word kept capitalizing ‘laundromat.’ I checked, and Webster’s agrees. Westinghouse copyrighted it back in 1947. But. . . . really?” This led to this interesting discussion about all the words that, once upon a time, were capitalized because they were brand names but are not now:

App Store, Aspirin, Catseye, Cellophane, Dopp kit [I had to look this up, even though I’ve had one!], Dry ice, Escalator, Heroin, Kerosene, Lanolin, Linoleum, Mimeograph, Primal Therapy, Thermos, Touch-tone, Videotape, Yo-Yo, and Zipper.

And Dumpster Continue reading “Right on! for the genericized noun”